Historians and social scientists generally use “Chicago-Style” footnotes for citation. Footnotes provide important bibliographic information for facts, paraphrases, and quotations presented in the paper.
Inserting a footnote in Microsoft Word:
Place the cursor where you would like to insert a footnote. In the references tab, click “Insert Footnote.” Word will automatically place a footnote at the bottom of the page where you can enter the necessary citation.
Where should a footnote be placed? Insert a footnote after the punctuation mark (period, comma, question mark, or exclamatory point) and the quotation mark.
Ex. Belskaia hoped her letter would “become a vivid illustration of the cruel times of Stalinist excesses.”2
The first footnote for a source should contain full bibliographic information: publication information for the work plus the page number (examples a, below). Subsequent footnotes should follow an abbreviated style (examples b). If you use the same source cited in the previous note, use the Latin abbreviation “Ibid.” in place of the author and title (examples c).
Citation Format for BOOKS (print)
Work with one author:
a. Shoshana Keller, To Moscow, Not Mecca: The Soviet Campaign against Islam in Central Asia, 1917-1941 (Westport: Praeger, 2001), 38.
b. Keller, To Moscow, Not Mecca, 46.
c. Ibid., 42.
Work with two authors:
a. Maurice Isserman and Michael Kazin, America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 234.
b. Isserman and Kazin, America Divided, 176.
c. Ibid., 176.
Work with three or more authors:
a. Lawerence B. Goodheart et al., Slavery in American Society, 3rd ed. (Lexington: D.C. Heath, 1993), 124.
b. Goodheart et al., Slavery in American Society, 143.
a. Robert Louis Paquette and Louis A. Ferleger, eds., Slavery, Secession, and Southern History (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000), 128.
b. Paquette and Ferleger, Slavery, Secession, and Southern History, 135.
a. Nicholas V. Riasanovsky, A History of Russia, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 71.
b. Riasanovsky, A History of Russia, 272.
a. George P. Rawick, ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, 21 vols. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1972), 5: 274-275.
b. Rawick, ed., The American Slave, 5:42.
Citation Format for BOOKS (electronic)
The note must include the elements above plus, as a final element, the format consulted.
Electronically published book:
Maurice Isserman and Michael Kazin, America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), chapter 3. [Kindle edition, PDF e-book, Palm e-book, Microsoft Reader e-book].
Book consulted on-line:
Maurice Isserman and Michael Kazin, America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), chapter 3. Plus the URL used.
N.B.: Page numbers are not always stable in electronic formats; you may need to use another locator such as chapter or section number.
Citation Format for ARTICLES (print)
a. Douglas Ambrose, “Sowing Sentiment: Shaping the Southern Presbyterian Household, 1750-1800,” The Georgetown Law Journal 90 (November 2001), 149.
b. Ambrose, “Sowing Sentiment,” 152.
c. Ibid., 136.
Article in a book:
a. D.A. Washbrook, “Progress and Problems: South Asian Economic and Social History, c. 1720-1860,” in Modern India: An Interpretive Anthology, ed. Thomas R. Metcalf (New Dehli: Sterling, 1990), 199.
b. Washbrook, “Progress and Problems,” 231.
Untitled book review:
a. Michael Grow, review of Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anticommunism by Stephen G. Rabe, The American Historical Review, 94 (December 1989), 1508-1509.
b. Grow, review of Eisenhower and Latin America by Rabe, 1508-1509.
a. Lori Riley, “UCONN Passes Toughest of Tests,” Hartford Courant, 1 April 2002: A1.
b. Riley, “UCONN Passes Toughest of Tests,” A4.
a. Roger Simon, “Show Time,” U.S. News & World Report, 29 April 2002: 16.
b. Simon, “Show Time,” 19.
Citation Format for ARTICLES (electronic)
Article in online journal:
a. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010.
b. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 415.
OTHER SOURCES: Citation Format
a. George Bush, Interview by Dan Rather, CBS Evening News, Columbia Broadcasting System, 8 Feb. 1989.
b. Bush Interview, 8 February 1989.
For more information on footnotes, see:
• The Chicago Manual of Style 16th ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
• Turabian, Kate. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 7th ed. Chicago: University Press, 2007.
• The Chicago Manual of Style online: www.chicagomanualofstyle.org
• Suggested links at the Writing Center website: my.hamilton.edu/writing/home April, 2013
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